The collapse of the Islamic State group leaves many countries facing a dilemma over what to do with the fighters’ wives and their children.
In Britain, the case of one young woman – Shamima Begum – has sparked fierce debate.
But, unnoticed by many, Russia has been bringing women and children out of Iraq and Syria since 2017.
It’s a major issue for Moscow as it’s thought some 4,000 extremists left Russia to join IS – most of them from the mainly Muslim North Caucasus.
Sarah Rainsford went to the southern Russian republic of Dagestan to meet some of them.
Video produced by Matthew Goddard & Will Vernon
Russia’s IS families: ‘Why are the children being punished?’